@许宏 许应许 信仰与管理有很大的关系。有什么样的信仰，就会做什么样的事情。信仰与价值观也有很大关系。管理者的一言一行都体现了他的价值观，也体现了他的信仰。宗教信仰与价值管理（真正的、有价值的、负责任的管理）的关系可以作为博雅管理的一个研究课题。@许宏 许应许 先生对此深有研究，不知能否带个头？
A Man's SpiritualJourney From Kierkegaard to General Motors
By PETER STEINFELS NOV. 19, 2005
When Peter F.Drucker died eight days ago, the only specifically religious reference thatappeared in most obituaries was "guru" -- as in "managementguru." It was, incidentally, a term he despised.
Manyobituaries did mention that for decades Mr. Drucker, who would have turned 96today, devoted much of his energy to analyzing and advising nonprofitorganizations and charities. A few obituaries even mentioned churches.
In fact, Mr.Drucker's prescience about the growing role of megachurches in American societycould be placed alongside other insights those obituaries recorded: hisanticipation ofJapan's economic emergence, for example, or his attention tothe rise of "knowledge workers" and the uses of"privatization."
Religion, itturned out, had a great deal to do with Mr. Drucker's work. In 1989, the editors ofLeadership, an evangelical quarterly for pastors, asked him, "After alifetime of studying management, why are you now turning your attention to thechurch?"
Mr. Drucker politely corrected them. "As far as I'm concerned, it'sthe other way around," he said. "I became interested in managementbecause of my interest in religion and institutions."
Mr. Druckerwas raised in Vienna in a family of intellectuals, the perfect incubator forthe polymath he became. Jack Beatty, in his biography "The World Accordingto Peter Drucker" (Free Press, 1998), passes on Mr. Drucker's descriptionof the family Lutheranism as "so 'liberal' that it consisted of littlemore than a tree at Christmas and Bach cantatas at Easter."
Then, at age19, Mr. Drucker came across the works of the theologian and philosopher SorenKierkegaard -- and was bowled over. He studied Danish in order to readKierkegaard's yet-untranslated writings.
From Kierkegaard to studying General Motors and the secrets ofentrepreneurship may seem like a long stretch. ButKierkegaard's stark Christian vision spoke to Mr. Drucker's lifelong search forwhat he was observing while working in aGermanysliding into Nazism -- anexplanation of why, in a modern world of organizations and rapid change,freedom has so often been surrendered.
Mr. Beattynotes the "nakedly religious sentiment" with which Mr. Drucker endedhis 1959 book "Landmarks ofTomorrow."
"The individual," Mr. Drucker wrote, "needs the return tospiritual values, for he can survive in the present human situation only byreaffirming that man is not just a biological and psychological being but alsoa spiritual being, that is creature, and existing for the purposes of hiscreator and subject to Him."
Such sentimentsdo not crop up often in the 35 books that Mr. Drucker published. In a 1999profile in Christianity Today, Tim Stafford described Mr. Drucker as a"practicing Episcopalian." An interview in Forbes exactly a year agodescribed him as a "muted Episcopalian." (One can almost hear otherEpiscopalians quipping, "What other kind is there?")
As Mr. Stafford observed,"Drucker hardly ever uses theological or biblical terminology to expresshimself, even if he is writing about something that easily fits theologicalcategories. With some other management writer this might be an accident, butDrucker is so well educated in philosophy and theology that it has to be aconscious choice. The point is that Drucker is not a man of piousgestures."
So if Mr.Drucker's religious interests were not more widely noticed, it was due to hisown reticence as much as to any antipathy to religion in the world of businessor ideas. Still, once one becomes aware of his religions as well as hispolitical outlook, it is not hard to see them as underpinnings for much of histhinking about the human obligations of management and the importance ofcommunity in an unstable world.
His reticencedisappeared, of course, when he was addressing religion and managementdirectly. He tossed out ideas and opinions in his usual dizzying fashion,comparing Reformation-era Calvinists and Jesuits, declaring revolutions"in the human spirit," obviously less concerned about being wrongthan about not provoking thought.
The futurewas with "pastoral churches," he argued, ones that put a higherpriority on answering people's needs than perpetuating some specific doctrineor ritual or institutional structure.
"Very bluntly, people are dreadfully bored with theology," hetold the editors of Leadership in 1989. "And I sympathize with them. I'vealways felt that quite clearly the good Lord loves diversity. He created 2,500species of flies. If he had been like some theologians I know, there would havebeen only one right specie of fly."
Are pastorscomparable to C.E.O.'s? "Up to a point," Mr. Drucker said. On theother hand, "many other organizations can be run on the army model, thecommand model. But the church cannot. It's a partnership."
Sermons areimportant. "You have 20 minutes to communicate the vision," he said,the fact "that there is another world, but it completely penetrates,encompasses, encapsulates this world."
Sometimes hecriticized churches as being unconcerned about the world. At other times, hecriticized them as emphasizing social programs to the neglect of a distinctlyspiritual mission.
"Thechurch is the only organization that is not entirely concerned with the kingdomof this earth," he said. "We're the only one with another dimension.And for that reason, many good concerns around here are not our primaryfocus."
One shouldnot miss the "we" and "our" in those sentences.
He freelyadmitted inconsistency, however, questioning whether some churches should"really be in the shelter business," but praising Roman Catholics forrunning schools for non-Catholics in areas where the public schools werewanting. The question was always, he said, "Can we make a realdifference?"
"Makinga difference in the way people see what's truly important in life" was hisultimate test for both individuals and churches.
"I don'tknow," he acknowledged, "that you can measure this -- certainly notby the bookkeeping of this world -- but I'm reasonably sure that some sort ofbookkeeping is going on someplace."
In thisworld, he said in a characteristic marriage of the visionary and the practical,the ones who best understand what can make a difference are the saints.
"That'sthe definition of a saint," Mr. Drucker said, "somebody who seesreality."
@JD黄建东 多谢黄先生！是的，这是当年《纽约时报》的文章。作者是一位记者兼学者：https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Steinfels 。关于信仰与管理，很有兴趣做进一步的研究，也盼望听各样的讨论。
@许宏 许应许 相信许先生认识一些对信仰有研究的学者。对德鲁克的深入研究能够为现实中的管理者打开一扇从另一个角度看问题的窗户。这里需要我们的学者走在前面，带个头。
@许宏 许应许 多谢许先生。如果能够联合起一批有识之士，在这个课题上做些研究，是有必要的。